Global Positioning Satellite












The Global Positioning Satellite system (GPS) was established by the US Department of Defense with the aim of providing real time navigation updates for the military. It was intended for nationwide and all weather use. However, it has grown to enable position determination to all kinds of users in different fields. The GPS system uses satellite images to broadcast current location and time. The satellite receivers listen to several satellites and from such broadcasts; they are able to determine where the receivers are located and what time it is.

In addition to broadcasting specific messages unique to each satellite and receiver, more data is also added to the signals. The data includes precise current time that is rounded off to the nearest second. This information is essential in computing the specific real time position of the satellite. The Global Positioning Satellite system is a navigation system based on navigation. The system uses digital signals to relay data to the receiver. The receiver then deduces the exact range from the satellites to determine geographic location. The following diagram shows the satellite sends data to the receiver to determine precise time and position.



At times, a second line of position is needed so as to determine two possible locations of the receiver. The following diagram shows how this is done.

The third line of position will resolve this to provide a single location and time on the Earth. The range from various satellite images is determined by factors such as the time the signal was received. The messages relayed from the satellite also include the time the image was sent. This time is compared to the time on the receiver clock to determine the range. A fourth satellite is used to resolve any errors in time that might occur. For the Global Positioning Satellite system to work there should be at least four satellites that are visible to the receivers at all times. There are approximately 21 operational satellites that circle the earth’s orbit every 24 hours.

Experts have argued that Global Positioning Satellite system in cars is a potential distraction. According to safety experts, distracted driving is a common cause for various transportation accidents. It is important that drivers use the GPS in their cars wisely and keenly follow the basic rules. When using GPS, individuals know where they are going, trying to see road signs to determine where one is causing distraction in driving. However, with the use of GPS, one is rarely lost. Even when one misses a turn, the Global Positioning Satellite system automatically recalculates the route.

This reduces stress and distraction for the driver. Installing GPS in one’s car means that one does not have to deal with physical or electronic maps. It is challenging and potentially dangerous to handle maps while driving. This is also a significant distraction. It is also not easier even when there is a passenger trying to read the map and provide directions. GPS also improves safe driving at night. This is one of the best features in in-car Global Positioning Satellite system. GPS gives drivers better control at night and also in low-visibility conditions. GPS also have safety features such as help buttons, hands-free calling that show the driver to the nearest hospital, police station and garage.

The Global Positioning Satellite system is also used in other fields such as transport and business industries. The GPS technology has significantly improved the overall effectiveness of operations in trucking companies. This technological innovation has provided business multiple benefits to the business. Such advantages include more efficient and faster transportation processes, better time management and greater security of the cargo in transit. Consequently, many trucking businesses have implemented Global Positioning Satellite system into their operations. GPS technology has become an integral part of transportation logistics due to its involvement in the facilitation of more efficient transportation solutions. Business owners of commercial freight transportation services install GPS devices onto trucks so as to allow for fleet tracking. The use of GPS  has various benefits, and it improves the overall ability of transportation companies to be more reliable and responsive in their operations.

There are multiple ways that the law enforcement personnel can use the Global Positioning Satellite system to improve security. Many security stakeholders have implemented the use of GPS to enhance surveillance. Using GPS for vehicle tracking has enabled law enforcement personnel have access to real-time locations ad time of potential criminals and this has helped them operate more efficiently. This technological advancement has however resulted in privacy concerns. This happens when security personnel do not conduct their due diligence when using information from tracking devices. GPS is not only used to track police cars but also as a weapon in fighting crime. Police fix GPS trackers in vehicles of suspects so as to monitor their movements. GPS have impacted security systems in that they allow for long-term surveillance that is normally not possible without being detected. GPS devices are also used to monitor suspicious cargo with the aim of providing valuable evidence to be used by the prosecution.






Leick, A. (2004). GPS satellite surveying (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

Parkinson, B. (1996). The global positioning system theory and applications. Volume I.             Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

Parkinson, B. (1996). The global positioning system theory and applications. Volume I. Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.


Chronic disease self-management


Chronis Disease Description

Steve is a 58-year old father of six who is not working. Steve was previously a drunkard and was addicted to several drugs including cocaine. Steve received a liver transplant after he was diagnosed with liver cirrhosis. Frank has been living in the same neighborhood since he got married to his late wife who passed away after she was involved in a grisly accident. His family provides for him, especially his eldest daughter.

Steve has never had any form of insurance, ever, in his life. Nothing that he owns is insured, his health included. Currently, he has no income or a source of funds. His six children take care of themselves and do not depend on their nonchalant father who is rarely concerned with their well-being. Three of his youngest children are in school while the others dropped out to look for work so that they can support the younger ones. Steve never visits a hospital unless it is necessary. He has never received a full medical check up voluntarily. The last time Steve received a medical check-up was before he received a liver transplant.

At the date of the liver transplant, the doctor warned him of possible chronic diseases that would attack him if he did not change his lifestyle. He risked having heart diseases, cancer and type-2 diabetes. The results, however, were not followed up. The doctor advised that he changed his, unhealthy, lifestyle if he did not want to be attacked by the diseases (W Battersby, Ask, M Reece, J Markwick, & P Collins, 2003). Steve is yet to visit the hospital even after having some symptoms that are out of the ordinary. Steve was recently involved in a minor road accident, and the doctor insisted that he has a medical checkup. Steve was found to be overweight with a Body Mass Index of above 30. Steve was found with heart diseases and type-2 diabetes. Steve is always having trouble doing simple tasks which he dismisses.

Health Promotion Activities and Risk Factors Applicable to Steve

Consolidated eating routine and physical movement advancement programs mean to avert type-2 diabetes among individuals who are at expanded danger of the infection (Huffman, 2009). These projects effectively urge individuals to enhance their eating regimen and expansion their physical movement utilizing the accompanying:

  • Trained suppliers in clinical or group settings who work specifically with system members for no less than three months
  • Some mix of advising, guiding and expanded backing (W. Battersby, Ask, M. Reece, J. Markwick, & P. Collins, 2001)
  • Multiple sessions identified with eating regimen and physical action, conveyed in individual, or by different techniques

Projects may likewise utilize one or a greater amount of the accompanying:

  • Providers who are eating regimen guides of various strengths (for instance, nutritionists, dietitians, diabetes instructors), exercise advocates from different claims to fame (for example, physical teachers, physiotherapists, mentors), doctors, medical attendants, prepared laypeople, and others (Huffman, 2009)
  • A scope of force in the directing, with various or couple of sessions, longer or shorter length sessions, and individual or gathering sessions
  • Individually customized or nonspecific eating routine or physical action programs
  • Specific weight reduction or activity objectives
  • A time of support sessions taking after the crucial center time of the system

Program members might be considered at expanded danger of type-2 diabetes if they have blood glucose levels that are unusually lifted, however not sufficiently high to be named type-2 diabetes (Huffman, 2009). Members may likewise be distinguished utilizing diabetes hazard appraisal apparatuses.

Coronary Illness

Individuals with diabetes have a higher danger of heart assault, and stroke. People with the persistent coronary disease every now and again have type-2 diabetes (W Battersby et al., 2003). Individuals with diabetes and endless coronary disease are at higher danger of heart assault and stroke.

The reported increment in diabetes in numerous nations is thought to be connected with more individuals being physically latent, having poor dietary patterns and being overweight.

  • If a person has diabetes, it is imperative that he/she deals with his/her condition by being physically dynamic, getting a charge out of proper dieting and keeping up a healthy weight (W Battersby et al., 2003).
  • If the person has type-2 diabetes, like Steve, he/she may need to take medications to help him/her to keep up regular blood-glucose levels, and roll out a way of life improvements. It is additionally imperative to quit smoking, diminish the aggregate cholesterol, deal with a pulse and consistently see the specialist for diabetes surveys (Huffman, 2009).

Physical movement is an essential piece of caring for Steve’s well-being and diminishing the danger of intensifying the ceaseless coronary illness (W. Battersby et al., 2001). Consistent physical movement will:

  • improve his long-term wellbeing
  • reduce his risk of heart assault
  • give him more vitality
  • help him to deal with your weight
  • help him to accomplish more beneficial aggregate cholesterol
  • lower his circulatory strain
  • make his bones and muscles more grounded
  • get him to feel surer, upbeat and loose
  • Help him to rest better.

If he endures a heart assault, the normal physical movement will help him to recoup all the more rapidly. He additionally has diabetes; the activities will direct his glucose level. The physical action does not need to be strenuous. Moderate-force physical activity, for example, lively strolling, will be remarkable for his wellbeing. It is suggested that he does no less than 30 minutes of moderate-power physical action on most if not all, days of the week (Huffman, 2009). He can do these in littler sessions, for example, three 10-minute strolls, if it is less demanding (Huffman, 2009).

Description of the Likely Barriers and Enablers for Effective Self-Management That Relate To Steve

Steve’s lifestyle might appear to be a bit weird to some people. Steve is not a drunk, but he spends most of his time drinking non-alcoholic beer, sitting and reliving old memories almost the whole day at his favorite tavern. He is not used to exercising let alone doing something for himself. He does not want to help to do chores around the house although his duties as a father have been taken up by the older siblings.

His family is also less concerned about his health because he is also less concerned about his good being. He has not informed them of his illness, and he will tend to take care of himself. He has been for long, known for his pride and his reluctance to take action. His self-management will seem difficult after he starts taking his medication, which he will have to include in his schedule (W Battersby et al., 2003).

Steve is always saying how he likes his life and rarely complains about the mistreatment of his children, especially the elder ones. He will likely follow his self-management schedule and turn out to be a responsible patient with chronic diseases due to the love he has for his life. Although he is old, his friends are always made aware, by Steve, of his dreams for he believes he has a lot of living left to do.

Self-management care plans for Steve

Healthy Eating

Adhering to a proper diet is vital when attempting to control the glucose levels. Steve’s adhering to a proper diet ought to be observed by his companion if not his family. The multidisciplinary group ought to incorporate his family and friends (W Battersby et al., 2003).

The case of adhering to proper diet objectives: Steve will eat green vegetables daily at supper. Steve will quit drinking beer (W. Battersby et al., 2001). Steve won’t backpedal for a considerable length of time. Steve will begin perusing nourishment marks and gauge the sugars he will devour every dinner. Steve will locate his day by day calorie admission need.

Being Active

Strolling, swimming, and running are a case of being dynamic. Keep in mind when beginning another project, Steve ought to talk with his doctor and start moderate, and bit by bit build his action term after some time. Physical movement can enhance cholesterol, circulatory strain and glucose levels (W Battersby et al., 2003).

The case of being dynamic objectives: Steve will join an exercise center and go three times each week. Steve will go out for a stroll for 30 minutes three times each week (Huffman, 2009). Steve will observe just an hour of TV every night (Huffman, 2009).

Taking Medication

Type-2 diabetes is a dynamic ailment, and eventually, Steve may require other medicine. If he does not get his prescription reliably, this ought to be one of his objectives.

The case of taking medication targets: Steve will put his pills in a pill box (W Battersby et al., 2003). Steve will convey my insulin with him. Steve will put an update note to bring his solution close to the front entryway. Steve will use his drug store’s consistence bundling.



Self-management of chronic diseases is an important topic to ignore and a difficult one to do without (W. Battersby et al., 2001). Chronic diseases are always attacking each day, and their management has turned out to be a nightmare to those affected by the conditions (W Battersby et al., 2003). Self-management can be beneficial in ensuring that the sick will know how to live with the disease once they learn how to manage their illness and not appear as a bother to their families and friends. The learning of this topic can serve as an excellent drawing board once a student becomes a professional. Helping patients to come up with their self-management plan will be very easy on the part of the professional if he/she decides to polish this topic and understand it completely.




Huffman, M. (2009). HEALTH COACHING. Home Healthcare Nurse: The Journal For The Home Care And Hospice Professional, 27(8), 490-496.

W Battersby, M., Ask, A., M Reece, M., J Markwick, M., & P Collins, J. (2003). The Partners in Health scale: The development and psychometric properties of a generic assessment scale for chronic condition self-management. Australian Journal Of Primary Health, 9(3), 41.

  1. Battersby, M., Ask, A., M. Reece, M., J. Markwick, M., & P. Collins, J. (2001). A Case Study Using the “Problems and Goals Approach” in a Coordinated Care Trial: SA HealthPlus. Australian Journal Of Primary Health, 7(3), 45.

Dance as a form of therapy for children with Cerebral palsy


After a long time, therapists have come to appreciate that there is a relationship between human behaviors whether psychological, physical or social and dance. This is because dance has a therapeutic potential since it helps us to express our feelings and concerns. From ancient times dance has been associated with healing rituals. For instance, in the medieval era in Europe people danced to avoid bubonic plague and also in Italy the tarantella dance is believed to cure the bite of spiders. As a result, dance therapists have come to conclude that individuals can be able to heal from complications such as Cerebral palsy through dance movements. Therefore, dance therapy helps children with cerebral palsy to improve posture, muscle coordination and gain body awareness that enhances their participation, self-esteem and communication skills.

A brief introduction to cerebral palsy

Cerebral palsy is a neurological and physical movement disorder that affects victims at early childhood. The condition affects body movement, muscle coordination, balance and posture of the victims. Approximately about 2.1% of babies suffer from cerebral palsy in every 1000 births. Other population-based studies show that about 1 out of every 323 children is born with CP in the United States. These studies also indicate that CP is common within boys than among girls because 77.4 % of the recorded cases are boys while 58.2 % of the cases are girls[1]. CP condition is worse because out of this total population, about 41% of these children are likely to develop other complications such as epilepsy and autism among other motor disabilities.

One common cause of cerebral palsy is pregnancy complications such as premature birth and low birth weight. In the United States, about 6.2 % of 1000 births of children weighing 1500 to 2,499 grams are likely to suffer from cerebral palsy while the condition gets worse in children weighing less than 1,500 grams because 59.5 % of 1000 births are likely to suffer from cerebral palsy[2]. Globally, 43.7 % per 1000 births of premature children born between 28 to 31 weeks of gestation are likely to suffer from cerebral palsy. Another common cause of cerebral palsy is genetic disorders that run through the family line. Studies show that 2% of the totals cerebral palsy cases per year are attributed to genetic disorders[3]. Finally, cerebral palsy can be caused by injuries to the part of the brain that controls motion and coordination.

Children that are suffering from cerebral palsy often express particular signs and symptoms. First, they have muscle coordination and movement problems such as stiff and weak muscles. This explains why such children suffer from poor movement, balance and posture. Second, victims of cerebral palsy may experience problems of sensation, vision, hearing, and speaking because the coordination between their brain and nervous system is poor[4].  Third, such children also have slow thinking and reasoning process which may lead to seizures and poor performance in school. Finally, one can identify a child with cerebral palsy when they cannot roll, walk or crawl like other children within their age bracket.

Two types of classifications: based on the problem and the affected area give the various types of cerebral palsy. Classification based on problems have three kinds which are spastic, ataxic and athetoid. Spastic cerebral palsy causes a problem of stiff muscles; ataxic causes a problem of poor coordination while athetoid causes problems associated with writhing movements. On the other hand, classification based on affected area has four types which are monoplegia, diplegia, hemiplegia, and paraplegia[5]. Monoplegia means that only one limb is affected while diplegia means that the legs and the lower body are affected. Hemiplegia means that one side of the body is affected while paraplegia means that all legs and the lower body part are affected.

From the above classifications, cerebral palsy causes five types of movement abnormalities that can be corrected through dance therapy. First, hypotonia is the kind of muscle tone abnormality that causes resistance to movement. The two common muscles affected by this abnormality in children with cerebral palsy is the neck and the trunk. Hypotonia affects the posture of the child which affects their sitting and walking positions. Second, spasticity is an abnormality that causes tightness in the muscles of children suffering from cerebral palsy.  As a result, such children have a difficulty holding items because their arms and legs are turned inward. Dance helps these muscles to stretch from their tightness which helps the child with cerebral palsy to gain better muscle tone.

Third, dystonia is another movement abnormality caused by twisting and abnormal repetitive movements in the joints. Children with this disorder may experience conditions such as scissoring of one leg across the other and inwards turning of the wrist during dance lessons. Four, weaknesses abnormality is caused by less muscle strength which affects the movement of the muscles. The dance involves the following of a rhythm which helps children with cerebral palsy to improve their muscle coordination and strength. Finally, asymmetry is a movement abnormality caused by cerebral palsy which affects the child’s posture and trunk stability. Dance can improve the trunk stability of children with cerebral palsy because it strengthens the joints as one responds to the rhythms[6]. Therefore, cerebral palsy causes hypotonia, spasticity, dystonia, weaknesses and asymmetry movement disorders in the victims.

A brief introduction to dance as a form of therapy

Dance has existed for many years, and it has been defined as a sequence of movement made in response to the rhythm of the music. Dance has been used for many functions such as entertainment, healing, weight management and others do it as a hobby or career. Dance can be utilized as a form of therapy because it supports the intellectual and emotional development of the body. According to American Dance Therapy Association (ADTA), dance therapy is the “psychotherapeutic use of movement as a process which furthers the emotional, social, cognitive, and physical integration of the individual[7].” From this definition, we learn that people can use dance to express their feelings which lead to emotional, psychological and cognitive development. Fran Levy supports the definition of dance therapy by ADTA when he says that “body movement reflects inner emotional states and …changes in movement behavior can lead to changes in the psyche, thus promoting health and growth[8].” Therefore, According to Fran and ADTA dance has the power to heal people who have emotional problems, intellectual deficits, and life-threatening illnesses such as children suffering from cerebral palsy.

From the above definitions of dance therapy, it is clear that dance therapy is different from regular dancing in the following ways. First, dance therapy is more than regular exercising achieved through dance movement because it is a form of feeling expression. Dance therapy helps people to unconsciously or consciously express their feelings and emotions which they cannot express in words leading to emotional and physical relief[9]. Second, dance therapy goes beyond helping individuals to attain cardiovascular endurance, muscle tone, balance, and coordination to helping them develop specific body language, non-verbal behaviors, and emotional expressions. This means that dance therapy is a form of emotional and physical treatments that helps people to deal with emotional imbalances such as depression and other disorders such as cerebral palsy.

The history of dance therapy can be explained in three waves of development. Dance therapy is a concept that came into existence in the 1900s when Carl Gustav Jung coined the phrase dance as psychotherapy in his article. Carl’s ideas did not gain root until the 1950s when Marian Chance founded the American Dance Therapy Association (ADTA) in the United States which created the first wave of dance therapy. Marian was a dance instructor who argued that dance is a form of treatment after she observed that most of her students used dance as a way to express their feelings. Marian claimed that dance therapy is the “rhythmic action in unison with others results in a sense of well-being, relaxation, and good fellowship[10].” This means that dance is not just a form of a routine carried out for relaxation and entertainment, but it is a healing process that promotes the growth of one’s well-being. She later became a teacher of dance at St. Elizabeth Hospital in Washington to help students who suffered from emotional, physical and cognitive problems such as children with cerebral palsy.

The second wave of dance therapy occurred during the 1960s when other therapists began to support Marian and Carl’s ideas. This created an era where therapists such as Isadora Duncan, Martha Graham, and Doris Humphrey began to experiment with the psychotherapeutic applications of dance. For instance, in 1960, Mary Whitehouse created a movement promoting the use of dance as a form of therapy that develops better listening and expressing skills in people. Later, other dance therapy organizations such as Carter’s Commission on Mental Health were founded to use dance therapy to treat mental illnesses[11]. This lead to the third wave of dance therapy development where therapists began to use dance to deal with specific illnesses such as cerebral palsy in the 1990s.

Theorists who believe that dance is a form of therapy base their arguments on the following principles. First, they believe that the body and the mind processes are interrelated such that they affect each other. This means that when one moves during a dance process, it impacts the total functioning of the body and the mind which leads to therapeutic benefits. Second, movement in dance is a mirror of one’s personality. People use dance to express their inner self through the unconscious or conscious process of dance which helps them to attain a therapeutic feeling of emotional control[12]. Finally, therapeutic advantages of dance are mediated non-verbally which means that dance affects the patients in various ways that are not evident externally but have inherent benefits such as healing of emotional problems.

Horowitz in his article “Healing in motion: dance therapy meets diverse needs,” argues that dance therapy has several goals[13]. First, it creates an environment that helps the individual to reach their achievements and discover their limitations both physically and emotionally. Second, helps individuals to attain a healthy self-image by increasing their body awareness, spontaneity and creativity through dance movements. Third, helps people to manage their emotions such as anger and stress through teaching them the art of muscle control and stabilization. Finally, it supports the cognitive and physical growth of individuals through strength training which supplies more energy to the body. Also, it helps people to integrate their individual needs and social competence through the action of dance which helps them to deal with intra-psychic conflicts, emotional problems and structural deficiencies of life.

Case studies of the connection between dance therapy and cerebral palsy

Many dance therapists and researchers have conducted various studies to test the connection between dance therapy and cerebral palsy. The results of these therapists and researchers have a promising proof that dance can be used as a form of therapy for children with cerebral palsy. For instance, In 2010 Robert Wechsler and Alicia Penallba carried out a study to test if dance motion has any impact on children with cerebral palsy. In their study they used a sample of 32 participants from New York City in the United States. 31 participants of the 32 subjects in the study were children with ages ranging from 5 to 13 while the remaining participant was a 40-year-old man who acted as a control experiment[14].

The researchers worked with each separately in sessions of 15-30 minutes and gave each the opportunity to control music and sounds with their movements. Their motion response was them recorded using two technologies which were a video-camera based system and electrode-based physical touch system. The video camera was able to measure the pace of the motion while the electrode-based physical touch system measured the ability of the participants to control sound. Later, results were tabulated based on the physical ability of the participants to make and control specific movements in a form of motion as they responded to the rhythm in the music. The results were then analyzed based on the factors of the type of cerebral palsy, the age of the participant, amount of voluntary and non-voluntary movement and response to musical rhythm through gestures and other dance movements.

From this study Wechsler and Alicia found out that all the children responded to the movement in various ways. Most of them improved their response and movement with time after they began to feel successful control of their environment. Also, as they children carried out the dance moves one would notice a sense of pleasure and confidence in their body and faces. Thus, a dance made these children forget their handicapped conditions and helped them to let themselves enjoy the movements by taking control of their environment[15]. The more the child dance, the more he/she became happy and one would notice that they felt a form of therapeutic healing from their conditions.

In another study of 2012 Citlali administered a dance program on a group of suffering from cerebral palsy to test if it improved the healing and participation of the children. They used questionnaires, surveys and interviews which they conducted on the parents, therapists and children in a tertiary rehabilitation hospital, one outpatient physical therapy clinic, and one community center. From their study, they found out that the children with cerebral palsy reported great improvements in their posture, body awareness, and self-esteem after the dance program. From these findings, they concluded that dance programs can be used as a form of therapy and rehabilitation for children with cerebral palsy which increases their participation and physical well-being. Thus, from these two case studies, we learn that dance has been used as a successful therapy for children with cerebral palsy.

Benefits of dance therapy to children with cerebral palsy

Dance therapy helps children with cerebral palsy to communicate, express and restore their inability which heals their everyday emotional, cognitive and physical problems. Dance therapists believe that children with cerebral palsy can benefit from dance therapy in various ways. First, dance therapy helps cerebral palsy patients to attain better coordination of the mind and the body. Children suffering from this condition have poor coordination of their muscles and nervous responses which make them be unable to perform body functions such as walking, crawling and running. Dance is a process that involves the movement of different parts of the body that must be well coordinated to comply with the rhythm of the music. For this reason, dance encourages children with cerebral palsy use their limbs and other body parts that may be hard to coordinate in a fun way. Since dancing is fun the child with not concentrate on their weakness but they will put effort to be able to respond to the rhythm of the music through movement[16]. As the child responds to the rhythm, they can gain coordination between their limbs and other body parts which help them overcome movement disabilities caused by cerebral palsy such as stiff muscles.

Second, dance therapy helps children with cerebral palsy to attain body stabilization through strength and posture improvement. Dance is a form of strength training that increases muscle and cardiovascular endurance. As a result, children suffering from weak and stiff muscles can benefit from the dance because it encourages them to stretch their muscles as they respond to the movements of dance. Most cerebral palsy children suffer from poor posture which makes them be unable to stand straight. This condition can be corrected through specific dance movements such as the ballet and dance devices such as the pole which encourages the child to attain a good posture. Also, as the child learns to respond to the reciprocal and repetitive movements in the dance they attain a sense of control and balance which increases they body and mind stabilization. For children with cerebral palsy dance, therapy helps them to improve the monitoring, strength and balance during movement which creates a sense of stabilization in their limbs making them overcome the problems of poor posture caused by the disorder.

Third, dance therapy helps children with cerebral palsy to attain body awareness which helps them to celebrate their achievement and work on their limitations. As the child dances, there can identify what they can do and what they have to work harder to achieve. This awareness in good for children because helps them to understand themselves better. Just like adults who try different things to know their personality, children also understand themselves through their strengths and weaknesses. For instance, a child with cerebral palsy will notice that they cannot move their hands quicker like other ordinary people when they are suffering from stiff muscles[17]. A dance therapist must help this child to react positively to this discovery by helping them to overcome their limitations. As the child overcomes their weaknesses through repeated dance therapy classes, they can develop a body awareness.

Finally, dance therapy helps children with cerebral palsy to improve their self-esteem, communication skill and increase their participation in day to day activities. Most people view children with cerebral palsy as handicapped creatures who must be confined to a wheelchair for the rest of their life. In most cases, this treatment makes such children suffer from low self-esteem, poor communication skills and prefer to be isolated from other people[18]. In worst scenarios such children are made to believe that they cannot do anything for themselves which reduces their participation in the societal affairs. Dance therapy can be used as a corrective measure in this scenario because it encourages such children to overcome their weaknesses. As these, children learn to overcome their limitations through dance they develop positive attitudes and can relate more to people.

In conclusion, dance is a form of therapy for children with cerebral palsy. This condition has the symptoms of poor muscle coordination and movement problems, reduced sensation, vision, hearing and speaking and slow thinking and reasoning process. It is caused by premature birth, genetic disorders and injuries on the brain. The condition causes five types of movement disabilities which are hypotonia, spasticity, dystonia, weaknesses and asymmetry. Dance therapy which is the use of movement to improve one’s emotional, social, cognitive and physical well-being can be used to heal this condition. Therefore, for children with cerebral palsy, dance helps them to attain better coordination, body stabilization, and body awareness and develop their self-esteem, communication skill and increase their participation in day to day activities.










[1] Langwith, Jacqueline. 2011. Cerebral Palsy. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Greenhaven Press.


[2] Levete, Sarah. 2010. Explaining Cerebral Palsy. Mankato, Minn.: Smart Apple Media.


[3] Langwith, Jacqueline. 2011. Cerebral Palsy. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Greenhaven Press.

[4] Wechsler, Robert and Alicia Peñalba. 2010. “Motion Tracking: A Music And Dance Tool For People With Cerebral Palsy”. Palindrome Inter.Media Performance Group 3 (2): 40-400.


[5] Langwith, Jacqueline. 2011. Cerebral Palsy. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Greenhaven Press.

[6] Mehta, Devika. 2016. “A Case Study Of The Movements Of A Child Diagnosed With Cerebral Palsy Within The Context Of Dance Movement Psychotherapy At A School For Special Needs | Indian Journal Of Dance/Movement Therapy”. Cmtaisite.Wordpress.Com.


[7] “American Dance Therapy Association”. 2015. Springer.Com.


[8] Johnson, Carolyn. 1996. “Dance And Other Expressive Art Therapies: When Words Are Not Enough”. Art Therapy 13 (3): 214-215. doi:10.1080/07421656.1996.10759227.


[9] Goodill, S. 2005. An Introduction To Medical Dance/Movement Therapy. London: Jessica Kingsley.


[10] Lepecki, André. 2012. Dance. London: Whitechapel Gallery.


[11] Goodill, S. 2005. An Introduction To Medical Dance/Movement Therapy. London: Jessica Kingsley.


[12] Johnson, Carolyn. 1996. “Dance And Other Expressive Art Therapies: When Words Are Not Enough”. Art Therapy 13 (3): 214-215. doi:10.1080/07421656.1996.10759227.


[13] Horowitz, Sala. 2000. “Healing In Motion”. Alternative And Complementary Therapies 6 (2): 72-76. doi:10.1089/act.2000.6.72.


[14] Wechsler, Robert and Alicia Peñalba. 2010. “Motion Tracking: A Music And Dance Tool For People With Cerebral Palsy”. Palindrome Inter.Media Performance Group 3 (2): 40-400.


[15] López-Ortiz, Citlali, Kim Gladden, Laura Deon, Jennifer Schmidt, Gay Girolami, and Deborah Gaebler-Spira. 2011. “Dance Program For Physical Rehabilitation And Participation In Children With Cerebral Palsy”. Arts & Health 4 (1): 39-54. doi:10.1080/17533015.2011.564193.


[16] Klevberg, Gunvor Lilleholt, Sigrid Østensjø, Sonja Elkjær, Ingvild Kjeken, and Reidun Birgitta Jahnsen. 2016. “Hand Function In Young Children With Cerebral Palsy: Current Practice And Parent-Reported Benefits”. Physical & Occupational Therapy In Pediatrics, 1-16. doi:10.3109/01942638.2016.1158221.


[17] Mehta, Devika. 2016. “A Case Study Of The Movements Of A Child Diagnosed With Cerebral Palsy Within The Context Of Dance Movement Psychotherapy At A School For Special Needs | Indian Journal Of Dance/Movement Therapy”. Cmtaisite.Wordpress.Com.


[18] Levete, Sarah. 2010. Explaining Cerebral Palsy. Mankato, Minn.: Smart Apple Media.